Type the numbers, brackets, operators and commands (SIN, COS, EXP...) like the original term.
First write the line number then data, commands, calculations, etc. To save the line press ENTER. To enter a stored line press the cursor left or right. You can change the line with up and down. The INS key inserts a free place, DEL deletes the character below the blinking cursor. You can abbreviate commands: P. -> PRINT, I. -> INPUT. To delete a line, simply type the number and then ENTER: 10 [ENTER] deletes line 10. To copy a line just use cursor left and then overwrite the line number with the new number and press ENTER. To overwrite an existing line simply write a line with the same number and press ENTER. If an error occurred the cursor will appear at the location where the error occurred when you press up or down. When you press ENTER then or restart the program this will stop. If you press CLS and then up or down, you will jump to the end or beginning of the program.
Rank list of operators: Brackets, variables, functions, exponent, sign, * /, + -, comparisons, logical operators (AND, OR, NOT)
Hexadecimal numbers start with a & (i.e. &3F)
Variables are assigned with a = (X=35), the name can have up to 2 characters A..Z, 0..9 (must start with a letter)
- DEF key + character in dark marked area: Fast start of program given this letter at the line beginning, i.e.: 10 "S" PRINT 2*2: END
- SML key: Small letters
- DEL key: Deletes the character below the cursor
- INS key: Inserts a space (looks like [ ]) to be overwritten with a character.
- CLS key: Clear screen
- BRK key: Stops a running BASIC program or switches the computer on after auto power down.
- RESET key (back cover): Deletes the RAM card and resets the PC. Press Y to initialise.
- RESET + any key: Only resets the PC, the memory will not be deleted.
- MODE key: Switches between program and run mode.
- RESERVE mode: SHIFT + MODE: With SHIFT + character (in the dark marked area) you can edit shortcuts for text macros. Press enter to store the macro. A @ is the equivalent to the enter key.
- SHIFT key + character (dark area): Macro is executed if it exists.
- Abbreviations: Type the first letter(s) and a dot of the command and the next fitting command will replace it, i.e.: B. <ENTER> -> BEEP
- Cursor keys: Navigate in programs and terms. After enter you can get back with <- or -> in most cases (when a result was displayed). In programs you can scroll up and down or show the running line after a break or input.
- Strings must stand between ". At the end of a line you can forget the last " !
ABS(): Absolute value of the given term. The brackets are only necessary when a
whole term is used.
i.e.: ABS 12 ABS (23*2-78) + ABS X * ABS (Y-X)
- ACS, ACS(): Arcuscosinus, else like ABS
- AREAD variable: Reads the last result on the screen and stores it in the given variable, i.e.: 10: "S": AREAD I$: PRINT I$
- ARUN line: At the very beginning of the BASIC programs in the first line it will execute a RUN. You can use a label like "A" or "MYPROG", too.
- ASC char: Returns the ASCII code of the first given character or variable content.
- ASN: Arcussinus, like ABS
- ATN: Arcustangens, like ABS
- AUTOGOTO: Like ARUN, but it doesn't delete variables.
- BEEP count 0..65535 (, frequency 0..255, length 0..65535): Makes sounds: Height of sound n in 0..255, length in 0..65535, this formula gives the frequency of the tone , you can use my BASIC program "Notedit" which is a small music editor. Without the terms in brackets the command only beeps high.
- CALL address: Executes machine programs at given address between 0..65535.
- CHAIN (file name): A program can load another program from cassette and execute it. You can use a file name, too.
- CHR$ number: Returns the character of the given ASCII code 0..255.
- CIRCLE: Only for plotter and ink printer: Draws circles, ovals and sectors.
- CLEAR: Deletes all variables and arrays.
- CLOSE: Closes the serial interface.
- CLS: Clears the screen.
- COLOR number: Changes the ink colour.
- CONSOLE columns: Sets the line break column for the serial printer.
- CONT: Continues a with break interrupted program.
- COS: Cosinus, like ABS.
- CROTATE 0..3: Text direction on printer.
- CSIZE 1..63: Letter size on the printer.
- CURSOR position 0..95 or 0..23,0..3: Sets the screen cursor for PRINT, INPUT, i.e.: CURSOR 1,1 or CURSOR 90
- DATA data list: Makes a list which can be read with READ, i.e.: DATA "Hallo, ich bin", "Simon", "wie geht's?", 125, 1
- DEG dd.mmssrr: Converts angles from degree, minutes, seconds to decimal numbers.
- DEGREE: Switches to normal degree mode.
- DELETE number or number, or , number or number,number: Deletes given line, from start to including line, including line to end or area.
- DIM: Creates new arrays, you can list array names with , Usage: DIM name(number of arrays, two dimensions are possible)*length 1..80 (length only by strings) i.e. DIM I$(2,2)*80 or DIM N(18), L$(5)*12
- DMS number: Converts decimal numbers to degrees.
- END: Ends a BASIC program
- ERASE array: Deletes arrays, list up with ,
- EXP number: Calculates ex, else like ABS.
- FOR: Starts a loop, i.e.: FOR X=0 TO 10: .. : NEXT X
- GCURSOR (X,Y): Sets the pixel cursor.
- GLCURSOR (X,Y): Moves pen of plotter.
- GOSUB line: Starts a sub routine, you can use labels and variables with labels or numbers as content, too.
- GOTO line: Jumps to a line, else like GOSUB.
- GPRINT data: Draws 8 pixel big patterns following the bits of hex data like FF0013" at the GCURSOR position. Two hex letters make 8 pixel, the first is the lower 4 bits. You can use decimal numbers, too: GPRINT 120,11,0,255
- GRAD: Switches to new grad system.
- GRAPH: Switches the printer to graphics mode.
- IF condition (THEN) commands: If the condition is true or greater than 0 the following commands are executed until the end of the line. You don't need to write THEN
- INKEY$ variable$: Saves a pressed key in the string var. This var is empty when no key was pressed.
- INPUT "Text"; variable: Prints the text and queries input after the text with a cursor. You can use a list of vars, too: INPUT var,var,var
- INPUT # variables: Loads values from tape, you can use a filename, too: INPUT # "name",var. For arrays use syntax like I$(*)
- INPUT #1 variables: Loads from SIO, else like INPUT #.
- INT number: Cuts everything after a dot and makes whole numbers.
- LEFT$ (variable$, length): Returns the left part with the given length.
- LEN variable$: Returns the length of a string.
- LET: You must use it after a THEN or the condition when you want to operate on a variable as the first command i.e.: IF X>=10 LET X=9
- LF: Paper feed for printer. You can use a number for more than one line.
- LINE (X1,Y1)-(X2,Y2),attributes: Draws lines from point to point; attributes are: S/R/X,pattern,B/BF. The pattern is a number 0..65535 which draws the bits as pixels. S = sets pixels, R = deletes pixels, X = inverts pixels; B = draws a rectangle, BF = filled rectangle.
- LLINE: Draws lines like LINE on the printer.
- LLIST: like DELETE, prints the lines on a printer.
- LN number: Calculates the LN.
- LOG number: Calculates LOG.
- LPRINT data: Prints data over the SIO when it's open.
- LTEXT: Switches the printer to text mode.
- MDF number: Uses USING to round numbers up.
- MEM: Free memory.
- MEM$: Returns memory configuration.
- MID$ (variable$,startpos,length): Extracts a string.
- NEXT variable: The end of a FOR loop.
- ON var GOSUB sub list: var <1 nothing happens, var = 1 first sub in list is executed, 2 = second, ...
- ON..GOTO: like ON..GOSUB
the serial interface SIO (open until switched off), takes parameters like:
1200 = baud rate 300, 600 or 1200
N = parity N (none), E (even), O (odd)
8 = data bits 7 or 8
1 = stop bits 1 or 2
A = for ASCII mode
C = return mode: C (CHR 13: CR), F (CHR 10: LF), or L (CR+LF)
&1A = end code for program transmissions.
- OPEN$: Returns the parameters.
- PAINT value: Fills graphics on printer with patterns.
- PAUSE: Like WAIT, the PC waits 0.85 sec.
- PEEK address: Returns the byte at the given address.
- PI: Like , returns the number.
- POINT (X,Y): Returns the state of the pixel at X,Y with 0 or 1.
- POKE address, data: Writes data into RAM: POKE 64089,48,2,32,160,8,10,162
- PRESET (X,Y): Deletes the pixel at X,Y so it is blank.
Prints to screen:
PRINT "Text" writes the text at cursor position
PRINT variable writes the content
PRINT data, data, data... writes data in two columns
PRINT ;data writes after the last printed character.
PRINT data; data; data... ongoing writing
PRINT number: numbers are right bound, text left and every PRINT starts a new line except ; is used.
- PRINT #: Writes to tape, useable with file name.
- PRINT #1: Writes variables to serial interface.
- PSET (X,Y): Sets pixel, usable with S,R or X like LINE.
- RADIAN: Another degree mode.
- RANDOM: Initialises random number generator.
- READ variables: Reads from DATA list in sequence.
- REM text: Adds comments.
- RESTORE: Sets DATA pointer back to the beginning or a given position.
- RETURN: Returns from a sub program.
- RIGHT$ (Var$,length): Like LEFT$, only extracting right part.
- RLINE: like LINE, only for printer with relative coordinates.
- RND number: Makes a random number 1 to number (if number >1), else number between 0 and 1.
- SGN number: Returns the sign +, 0 or - (1, 0 or -1).
- SIN number: Sinus of number.
- SORGN: For plotter: Position of pen is new 0,0 coordinate.
- SQR number: Square root, .
- STOP: Makes a break like the BRK key.
- STR$ number: Converts a number to a string.
- TAN number: Tangent of the number.
- TROFF: Trace mode of.
- TRON: Trace mode on: Every line is run step by step.
- USING "format": Defines a format for printing data: # = number, . = dot, ^ = exponent, & = any character. USING "###.##^## &&&&"
- VAL string: String to number.
- WAIT: Waits for a given time 59 = ca. 1 second. Without parameter it waits for enter.
- BASIC: Uses BASIC mode (for programming).
- CLOAD: Loads a program from tape, you can use file names.
- CLOAD?: Compares a program with tape (you can use a filename).
- CLOAD M address: Loads a machine program from tape to the given address.: CLOAD M ["file name"] 34768
- CSAVE: Saves the programs in RAM to tape. You can use a filename and a password.
- CSAVE M start address, end address: Saves a machine program on tape.
- GOTO line or label: Starts a program without clearing all variables and deleting all arrays what RUN does.
- LIST line: In program mode: Shows the given line or label.
- LOAD: Loads a program from SIO.
- MERGE: Loads another program from tape to the existing.
- NEW: Deletes all BASIC programs and RESERVE memory.
- PASS "Password": Protects the program with a password or removes it.
- RENUM: Sorts the lines: RENUM 10 (new start line), 271 (old start line),100 (step)
- RUN line or label: Look at GOTO
- SAVE: Sends all programs to SIO.
MEM: For two RAM cards: SET MEM "B" = programs only in card 1 and variables in
SET MEM "D" = all 2 cards share the data
SET MEM "C" = only the card 1 is used.
- TEXT: Switches to text mode so that every character is ASCII. In normal mode the commands are 2 byte blocks in RAM, in text mode they are ASCII strings.